EFL LEARNING CHALLENGES IN THE MIDS OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC: A CASE OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

Ryan Agustian Nugraha, Syifa Dwi Nurlestari, Salma Siti Maryam

Abstract


The purpose of this study is to investigate the EFL learners' challenges on online learning in the midst of a COVID-19 pandemic. This study used a descriptive qualitative approach. The subject of this research was the English Foreign Language learners of  English study in senior high school in Cianjur. The instruments used were open questionnaire and interview. This thematic analysis was employed in the current study. The observation was to answer the issue about how learners faced the challenge of online learning setting and to know the supporting application used by the teacher. The study showed that the learners' challenges on online learning reveal that it did not run well during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many students were not prepared to respond to an online learning problem. This unpreparedness raised a feeling of laziness in pursuing the subject matter, especially for learning English which requires a lot of practice. The confusion also occurred to the most student who had just experienced school at this midle level. They perceived online learning is very difficult and less effective

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References


ANALYSIS OF CODE MIXING IN #NEBENGBOY VLOG OPENING ON BOY WILLIAM’S YOUTUBE CHANNEL

Arief Sugih W1 Lutfiah Fitriany2 Neng Sipa3

Suryakancana University

wirawarga666@gmail.com1

utfiahfitriany29@gmail.com2

nengsipa032@gmail.com3

ABSTRACT

Sociolinguistics is study about the connection among language and society. People have different language style when they interact each other. By using many variations, it can be possible for them to mix their language in their utterance. Mixing one language with other languages, in sociolinguistics field, it is called code mixing. The use of code mixing in society is common. It happens on a YouTube channel from a phenomenal and famous YouTuber in Indonesia who has the largest subscribers in Indonesia and Southeast Asia, that is Boy William. Therefore, this research focuses on code mixing that emerges on Boy William’s video on his YouTube channel. This research examines the code mixing that occurs at each opening in the #NebengBoy vlog on Boy William's YouTube channel. This research used descriptive qualitative method by using content analysis of Boy William’s video on his YouTube channel.

Keywords: Sociolinguistics, code mixing, YouTube, Boy William

INTRODUCTION

Language is closely related to how people communicate with each other. Thus in learning a language, we are also bound to people or society. In linguistics, it is known as sociolinguistics. Sociolinguistics is the study of humans and society. Language is a tool of culture interaction, not only information exchange. Information exchange is the function of language (Bolinger in Giyoto, 2013). Walfarm in Giyoto (2013) explains that there is direct causal relation between different variation of language and social difference. Language and society influence each other and determine in meaning that a certain language variation shows a certain social status and social status determines language variation (Giyoto, 2013).

The study between language and society called sociolinguistics. Sociolinguistics studies the relationship between language and society, speak differently in different social context, concerned with identifying the social functions of language and the way it is used to convey social meaning, examining the way people use language in different social contexts, provides a wealth of information about the way language works, as well as about the social relationship in a community (Holmes, 1992).

The sociolinguistics or people studying a language must be familiar with a code. A code is a symbol of nationalism that is used by people to speak or communicate in a particular language a dialect, a register, an accent or a style on different occasions and for different purposes. A code is divided into code-mixing. Code mixing occurs when people mix two languages between mother tongue and English and code-mixing is found mainly in informal interactions. There are some reasons why people make code-mixing. Firstly, in code-mixing, bilingual speakers seem to apply some words or phrases from foreign language (pieces of one language smaller than clause), while the other language (code) functions as the base language. Secondly, bilingual speakers mix codes, when there is no topic that changes, nor does the situation.

Code mixing may be found either in oral or written language. In oral language, code mixing can be found in television, radio, YouTube and other media. While the written language can be found in books, novels, magazines and newspapers. Nowadays, social media has rapidly developed and ended up the genre of communication in the worldwide including Indonesia (Eunson, 2015). Social media is used by many people, either teenagers, young, adults, or old. Social media makes it easier to interact with people around the world. Social media is no longer a means of communication, but social media is the place to socialize which means everything is always related to social media (Miller, et al., 2015). Social media platforms such as YouTube, Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook still exist. Through social media, people can make their content and share it with others (Lincoln, 2009 as cited in Eunson, 2015). One of the social media platforms is YouTube.

The aims of this research are to find out the levels of the usage of code mixing that are used by Boy William’s on #NebengBoy vlog opening and to investigate factors causing the code mixing used in #NebengBoy vlog opening.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS

The Definition of Sociolinguistics

An analysis on sociolinguistics approach is used by the researcher to carry out this research. The researcher starts from approach. Sociolinguistics is a branch of linguistics that studies something particularly significant between language and social community (Wardaugh, 1998). Richard (1985, p.15) states that “approach is how languages are learned dealing with language variety and their user within a social framework”. While Kliment (2014) says that sociolinguistics explores language in relation to society. Criper and Windows on in Giyoto (2013) explain that sociolinguistics study is a language in usage. The aim is to show the relation of language convention with other aspects from culture. This means that it concerns with language used for communication among different social groups of people in different social situation.

The Definition of Bilingualism

Many people in the world use more than two languages (Coulmas, 1998), the terminology of bilingualism related to the use of two languages or two language codes (Chaer and Agustina, 2010). It is also said by Ohoiwutun (2002) that the use of two languages or more called bilingualism, and those who speak two languages called bilingual (Penalosa, 1981). Bilingualism will be used as general term for the use of two or more languages in a society (Mesthrie et. al., 2004). In the same definition, other also says that bilingualism is related to the use of two languages or more. She also says that bilingualism is a form of language contact which has relative meaning and terminology. It is not only related to the use of two languages, but also included to the ability of speaker to use more than one language (Hertanti, 2014). By sociolinguistics, it is defined that bilingualism is the use of two languages by user with the interaction.

The phenomenon of bilingualism stated by Suandi (2014) is appeared from two groups of language user which has different languages and the interaction produces more than one language. While other says that bilingualism is not system of language phenomenon, but it is language use phenomenon, it means that the use of language by turns (Mackey in Suandi, 2014). According to Haugan (in Padmadewi, Merlyna, and Saputra, 2014) bilingualism is the ability to produce utterance, meaningful in other languages. Bloomfield (in Padmadewi, Merlyna, and Saputra, 2014) states that bilingualism is the situation when people master two languages with the same value and also as people habit when they are doing conversation with using more than one language (Nababan, 1991). Padmadewi, Merlyna, and Saputra (2014) define that bilingualism is a usual phenomenon caused by language contact which includes people to acquire more than one language, particularly in bilingual or multilingual society. It can be inferred that bilingualism is a phenomenon in social where the society use and master more than one language.

The Definition of Code Mixing

Talking about code switching it is usually followed by code mixing, because it is a phenomenon which happened in bilingual or multilingual society. This phenomenon is formed by the use of elements from a certain language in other sentence. It means that code mixing is the use of more languages or codes in discourse which has no clear patterns (Ohoiwutun, 2002). This kind of phenomenon is quite difficult to be differentiated, because it almost has similar characteristics (Chaer and Agustina, 2014. Code mixing is a code which is used, has a function and its autonomy. Code mixing is like code switching that only the frequency is high and often involves words only (Tarjana, 2009). While other codes which are influenced in conversation is only a pieces of insertion other language (Chaer and Agustina, 2014). If someone uses a word or a phrase from one language, it means he or she is doing code mixing (Fasold in Chaer and Agustina, 2014).

Wardhaugh (1986, p.103) explains that “code mixing occurs when conversant uses both languages at the same time to show that they change from one language to the other in the course of a single utterance”. In addition, Nababan (1991) says that it is a mixing of two or more language or language variation in speech act or discourse without something in using language situation which demands the speaker, it is only because of informal and speaker habit. Suandi (2014) also states that code mixing is language changing by multilingual society, and it is caused by situation changing. Other states that code mixing is process whereby speakers indulge in code switching between language of such rapidity and density, even within sentences and phrases, that it is not really possible to say at any given time which language they are speaking (Trudgill, 1992). It seems from the explanation that language used in conversation is difficult to detect. The use of two languages or more does not deal with the change of situation, topic, and participant. It can be said that code mixing is code variation which other language insert in one utterance when speaking, use two languages, caused by informal situation, and habit of multilingual society.

METHOD

Research Design

The research used descriptive qualitative research. In this case, the researcher collected the data, made an analysis, and made a conclusion in the end. According to Sugiyono (2014) qualitative method is a research method which is used to observe natural object situation.

In this method, the researcher as the main point of the research, the technique of collecting data is done by triangulation technique, the analysis of the data is inductive, and the result of the research are emphasized to the meaning and generalization. In addition, Moleong (2002: 2) states that a qualitative research is a research that does not include any calculation or numeration because the datum are produced in the form of word. It is associated with generating and developing an understanding. In this research, the researcher collected the data by selecting words and phrases representing code mixing in #NebengBoy vlog opening on Boy William’s YouTube channel. The data were collected and analyzed based on their contexts.

The purpose of the research design is to provide the most valid and truthful possible answer to research question. In qualitative research, the researcher has an authority in elaborating what has been found in the source and applying the suitable theory to answer the research question, and the researcher has a role as the key instrument. The design of this research is content analysis because the researcher studies about recorded material within its own context, and the material 34 is YouTube video blogs (vlogs). Content analysis can be carried out with any written material, from documents to interview transcriptions, from media products to personal interviews (Cohen, et. al., 2007: 475). By using this design, the data of the research are collected from printed or recorded material through document analysis.

Nowadays, new devices for recording activities and processes have been developed. Internet formats like Facebook, Twitter, Blog and YouTube are adopted to catch relevant aspects of the life worlds in the twenty-first century. The changing ways of communicating in new media and channels and through new technological devices produce new forms of data. From YouTube video blogs made by Boy William, the researcher analyzed code switching and mixing used there. Thus, the researcher analyzed code mixing used by Boy William by using content analysis design with qualitative approach.

Research Instrument

In identifying the study, the researcher needs some instruments to support it. It is used for collecting the data. The instruments will make the researcher easier to finish the research. The instruments divided in to main instrument and supporting instrument. The first is the researcher herself who as the main point of the instrument, because the researcher uses qualitative research. According to Meleong (2004) qualitative research uses the researcher to help the data analysis to other people as the research instrument, he also states that in a qualitative research the researcher as a planner, collector, and analyst of the data. Finally, the researcher reports the result of the analysis. Besides, there are some supporting instruments to collect the data which make the researcher easier to analyze and finish the data. The supporting instruments are, pen, papers, computer, and electronic dictionary. Those things used by the researcher in collecting and analyzing the data as supporting instruments.

Technique of Collecting Data

The first technique of collecting data was watching some episodes of #NebengBoy vlog until the end. Then, the researcher collected the data from #NebengBoy vlog. The data were purposive data in the forms of word, phrase, clause, reduplication, idiom, and baster. Based on the forms of the data, the data were classified into six levels of code mixing. After classified the data, the researcher reduced the data based on the levels in the theory, it involved the process of selecting and focusing the raw data into refined data.

Technique of Data Analysis

The researcher did not only collect the data, but also analyze the data to obtain the research’s results. In this research, the researcher used content analysis. Gao (1989) states that Content analysis is a set of procedure for collecting and organizing information in a standardized format that allows analysts to make inferences about the characteristics and meaning of written and other recorded material. Elo and Kungas (2007) state that content analysis is a method that may be used with either qualitative or quantitative data and in an inductive or deductive way.

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

Based on the data collection that we used, findings and results are discussed in this part:

Levels of code mixing of Boy William’s on #NebengBoy vlog opening

By using Suwito’s category of code mixing (1988) in the forms of word, phrase, baster, repetition word, idiom and clause, the following table shows the result of code-mixing levels in the data:

No. Level of Code Mixing Definition Example

Word Level Word is the smallest unit of

language consists of a

morpheme or more than a

morpheme 12/09/2020 ( #NebengBoy New Generation Eps. 1)

Boy: “Hai guys, apa kabar kalian semua?

Phrase Level Phrase is grammatical

analysis to refer to a single

element of structure typically

containing more than one

words, and lacking the

subject and predicate

structure typical of clauses.

Phrase insertion here a

sequence of words which is

semantically and often

syntactically restricted, and

functioning as a single unit 23/03/2018 (#Nebengboy S1 Eps. 08)

Boy: “kali ini gua pake bay fresh hang n go variant orange pulpy, mood gua ini jadi semakin fresh and fun.”

Clause Level Clause is a unit of

grammatical organization

smaller than the sentence,

but larger than the phrases,

words or morphemes and

clause having a subject and

predicate. Some clauses are

independent, so they can

stand themselves as

sentence or may appear

within sentence as

grammatically complete

statements. Other clauses

are dependent, they cannot

stand themselves and

therefore the meaning upon

the reminder or the sentence

in which they appear. 29/08/2018 (#NebengBoy S2 Eps. 05)

Boy: “I got Nana Shihab in my car. Hallo ka Nana, you know? It’s challenging getting you in the car. Lo tau ga? Banyak orang yang bilang ‘lu bakal ditolak’, ‘dia ga akan mau masuk mobil lu’

Baster Level Baster is a combination of

two elements and creates one

meaning, the form of baster

basically forms of English and there is an addition of

Indonesian slang affixation or

vice versa 29/08/2018 (#NebengBoy S2 Eps. 05)

Nana: “Aduh, justru pas Boy pertama kali WA (Whatsapp) gua langsung yes, let’s do this gitu kan

Repetition Level Repetition word is a word

formed because of words

reduplication. Rossa: “I don’t know seriously I don’t know” 16/04/2019 (#NebengBoy S3 Eps. 04)

Idiom Level Idiom is group of words

with a meaning that is

different from the meaning

of the individual word. It

means that idiom creates new

meaning that is different from

the real meaning of each

word Boy william bahas marion jola, ini reaksi julian jacob ! #nebengboy s3 eps.15

Boy: “Bro banyak banget orang yang awalnya baik tiba-tiba melejit jadi sombong, star syndrome”

From the table, it can be seen that all levels of code mixing were used in Boy William’s #NebengBoy vlog opening such as word level, phrase level, clause level, baster level, repetition level, and idiom level.

Factors causing the code mixing used in #NebengBoy vlog opening.

Code mixing happens caused by some factors, according to Suandi (2014) the factors that can cause code mixing:

No Factors of Code Mixing Definition

Code Usage Limitation Limitation factors happen if the speaker uses code mixing because of the speaker does not understand about word, phrase, and clause parable in basic language which used.

Popular Term This factor causes in social life, there are certain vocabularies which has most popular parable.

Speaker and

Speaker Character Speaker uses code mixing to the hearer because the speaker has certain purposes. There are some purposes in doing code mixing because of the speaker want to change conversation situation from formal to informal. Besides, the speaker uses code mixing because of habit and informal situation.

Conversation Partner Conversation can be individual addressee or group. In bilingual society, the speaker who usually uses one language can use code mixing if their addressee from same background but uses other language.

Domicile and time of conversation

Conversation Modus Conversation modus is a tool to communicate. It can be spoken modus (face to face, by phone or audio visual), and written modus (letter, newspaper and scientific book).

Function and Aim Language function is used in communication based on the aim of communication. Language function related to certain purpose, like asking, offering, and announcing. Speaker uses language based on the function they expected in context and situation.

Types and language speech level

Choosing types and language speech level based on partner consideration. The consideration shows based on the topic or relevance with certain situation.

Third Speaker The factor is caused by third speaker who has different background. It can be intended to appreciate the third speaker.

Main Topic Main topic is a dominant factor in causing code mixing, because it caused by formal and informal topic.

Humor Code mixing is usually used by speaker to show a humor in serious meeting, and used by comedian to entertain the audiences.

Prestigious Prestigious means that the speaker used code mixing because of situation factor, addressee, topic, and other sociosituational factors does not allow the speaker to use code mixing, or in other term the contextual function and relevance function are rising.

The table shows that the factors causing code mixing are various such as code usage limitation, popular term, speaker and speaker character, conversation partner, conversation modus, function and aim, types and language speech level, third speaker, main topic, humor and prestigious.

CONCLUSION

This paper investigates levels of code mixing and factors causing the code mixing in Boy William’s vlog opening on YouTube channel. The data show that Boy William on #NebengBoy vlog opening on his YouTube channel utilizes all levels of the code mixing like word level, phrase, word, baster, repetition and idiom. In addition, the factors causing code mixing by Boy William on #NebengBoy opening vlog are various.

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Tarjana. (2009). Handout Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching. Surakarta: Universitas Sebelas Maret Trudgill, P. (1974). Sociolinguistics: An Introduction. New Zealand: Pinguin Book.

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VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE AND LISTENING SKILL OF GRADE 12 JAPANESE LANGUAGE LEARNERS

Fitri Astar1 Yumna Rasyid2 Siti Ansoriyah3

Universitas Negeri Jakarta

FitriAstar_7316168005@mhs.unj.ac.id1

yumna_rasyid@unj.ac.id2

siti.ansoriyah@unj.ac.id3

ABSTRACT

The aim of this research is to investigate the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the Japanese listening skill. Many studies showed that vocabulary knowledge is significantly correlated with language skill, especially reading. But, how about the correlation with other language skills? Investigations to uncover the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and listening skill are also needed. The participants in this research were 34 Japanese learners from grade 12 of senior high school in Jakarta. They were given test that measured their vocabulary knowledge and Japanese listening skill. The result showed that vocabulary knowledge is significantly correlated with listening skill at .525 and can predict quarter of variance in listening score. Vocabulary knowledge contribution to Japanese listening skill as much as 28% and the rest was influenced by other factors that were not related with this research.

Keywords: vocabulary knowledge, listening skill, Japanese language, correlation

INTRODUCTION

Listening is an activity that dominates daily communication activities. According to Burley-Allen in Flowerdew and Miller (2005), the average time spent in daily communication processes is 9% for writing, 16% for reading, 35% for speaking, and 40% for listening. Although previously regarded as a skill that seems to be neglected in language learning and research (Miller, 2003), listening skills have begun to be considered to have an equally important role as the three other skills (Field, 2002; Richards, 2005; Vandergrift, 2004).

Listening is not only considered useful as a skill, but also needed in supporting the development of other aspects of language, such as speaking and reading (Richards, 2005). The focus of listening instruction at this time is to developing listening as a skill needed to construct and communicate meaning (Goh, 2008).

Lexical competence is an important aspect of communication competence and vocabulary knowledge is a strong predictor of language proficiency of language learners (Stæhr, 2009). Researches conducted by Meccarty in Vandergrift (2004), Staehr (2008; 2009), Wang and Treffers-Daller (2017), Hu & Nation (2000), Aulina (2012), AD., Hastuti, Sukmawati, & Rahmawati (2019), Selviana, Mannahali, & Dalle (2020), (Fitri, 2019) confirmed these findings.

The vocabulary required in listening and speaking skills tends not to be as large as in reading and writing skills (Nation, 2005). The results of these studies indicated that there is a strong relationship between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension ranging from .50 to .85 of learners with various levels of proficiency (Staehr, 2008). Vocabulary knowledge is a critical component in reading (Hu & Nation, 2000). Research by AD et al. (2019) explained that there is a positive and significant relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the ability to understand the intrinsic elements of short stories for junior high school students in Kendari.

To explore the role of vocabulary knowledge in the whole language skills, studies that show the contribution of vocabulary knowledge to other skills are needed (Stæhr, 2009). Meccarty in Vandergrift (2004), Staehr (2008; 2009) and Wang & Treffers-Daller (2017) suggested that vocabulary knowledge related to and is considered as a strong predictor of learners listening comprehension.

Based on these studies, we can say that vocabulary knowledge gives a significant contribution to learners’ listening skill. Therefore, this research aims to investigate the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and listening skill, especially listening skill of grade 12 Japanese language learners.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS

Vocabulary Knowledge

Vocabulary knowledge is an important part in listening because there is a strong relationship between vocabulary accessibility and effective listening activities (Rost, 2011). Listening, in principle, is influenced by a person's vocabulary capacity and also the ability to recognize words in speech. Activation of knowledge (content schemata and cultural schemata), which is required in understanding discourse, is related to and influenced by word recognition (Rost, 2011). According to Segalowitz et al., and Laufer and Hulstjin in Rost (2011), speed and breadth in the ability to recognize words are good predictors of listening ability. In addition, Rost, Nation et.al., and Graves in Rost (2011) prove that the inability to understand words in oral texts can cause attentional problems that will affect the listener's understanding, either directly or indirectly.

According to Rost (2011), vocabulary knowledge consists of a surface level (syntagmatic) which includes recognition of the spoken form of the word (including variations in allophones), its written form and grammatical function, and a deeper level (paradigmatic) which includes word collocation, relative frequency in language, usage restrictions, denotations and connotations.

Vocabulary knowledge consists of a surface level and a deeper level so that there are productive vocabulary terms as well as receptive vocabulary. In the explanation by Richards & Schmidt (2010), the terms refer to the amount of vocabulary that a person actively uses, compared to the amount of vocabulary they know and understand but are not actively used. A person can understand more words than the ones they actively use. They can have a receptive vocabulary (vocabulary they can understand in reading or listening) of up to 100,000 words, but productive vocabulary (for example those they use in writing or speaking) is only about 10,000 to 20,000 words.

Stæhr (2009), in his research, used the term breadth and depth of vocabulary mastered by learners to describe vocabulary knowledge. These two terms more or less refer to the same thing that Richards & Schmidt described regarding receptive and productive vocabulary. According to Staehr, vocabulary breadth refers to the large number of vocabularies that is mastered by the learner, while the depth of vocabulary reflects how well learners know each vocabulary or in other words how well the vocabulary is regulated in the learners' mental state regarding its meaning and association.

From the explanation above, vocabulary knowledge is important in language learning. This research focuses on knowing how is the role of vocabulary knowledge in the listening skills of Japanese language learners.

Listening Skills

According to Richards and Schmidt (2010) in the Longman Dictionary of Language and Applied Linguistics, skill is the abilities that are acquired to perform an activity well, usually through a series of actions and processes. Many aspects of language learning considered as the learning of skills, such as learning to speak or learning to read fluently.

Boyatzis and Kolb (1995) in their article about learning styles and learning skills, define skill as a combination of abilities, knowledges, and experiences that make someone able to do something well. Meanwhile, learning skill is defined as the ability to master a certain domain which is related to two components, namely the application and the process of knowledge transformation. Boyatzis and Kolb then summarize the definition in three important aspects, namely i) skills related to specific knowledges and domains, ii) skill is a description of an individual's integration with their environment, iii) skill is formed from practice and habituation.

Language skill is defined by Richards & Schmidt (2010) as the mode or way language is used, generally referring to four language skills, namely; listening, speaking, reading and writing. Usually speaking and writing are called active/productive skills, while reading and listening are called passive/receptive skills.

Productive skills are skills used by learners in producing language, while receptive skills are skills in extracting meaning from the discourse they read or listen to (Harmer, 2011). Nation and Newton (2009) stated that when using productive skills, learners are focusing their attention on conveying ideas and messages to others. When using receptive skills, learners' attentions are focused on the ideas and messages conveyed to them.

From the description above, it can be concluded that skills, in this case language skills, are abilities that are supported by language knowledge and experiences obtained through training and habituation related to the production and extracting of language meanings. Listening is an activity that deals with many aspects of life. Apart from being an important component in oral language processing, listening is also interrelated with aspects of acquisition and development (Rost, 2011). In the view of language learning, listening can be seen as a way of learning language. By listening, learners get information to build knowledge that will be needed when using the language, they are learning (Nation & Newton, 2009).

According to Rost (2011), people tend to define listening activities using terminology related to their personal and theoretical interest in the topic. Rost himself defined listening by looking at the four orientations of listening activities: receptive, constructive, transformative, and collaborative. Listening is the activity of accepting what the speaker says; by constructing and representing back the utterance meaning of the speaker; through the listener's involvement, imagination, and empathy; and also negotiate the meaning and respond to what the speaker said.

In line with Rost, Yokoyama (2008) defined listening as a process of constructing the meaning of speech using language knowledge and utilizing context, setting, and schemata.

Buck (2001) called knowledge of language as linguistic knowledge (phonology, lexeme, syntax, semantics, and discourse structure) while context, setting, and schemata are non-linguistic knowledge. Talking about listening, we cannot help but talk about the uniqueness of spoken language. According to Yokoyama (2008), spoken language has several differences from written language. In spoken language, especially those related to everyday communication, there are often repetitions, abbreviated or simplified forms, as well as corrections. Unlike written language, which has boundary markers for words, sentences, or clauses such as period or comma, spoken language has invisible boundary markers, so many people consider it unclear. Apart from that, spoken language is also very much influenced by the region of origin, culture, and speaking style of the speaker, as well as the timing and the purpose of the language being delivered. Oral language with its uniqueness is aural input used by learners in the listening process to construct and produce meaning. So, listening skills are ability to process spoken language uttered by the speaker through receptive, constructive, collaborative and transformative stages, using both linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge, obtained by practice and habituation, related to extracting language meanings, for communicative purposes and acquisition and development of language.

This research builds on existing studies and continues to investigate the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and Japanese listening skills. What is the level of Japanese vocabulary knowledge of grade 12 language learners? What is the level of Japanese listening skill of grade 12 language learners? Is there a relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the Japanese listening skill of grade 12 language learners?

METHOD

This research is a quantitative research using the correlation method. Participants in this research were 34 Japanese language learners in grade 12 high school in Jakarta. To obtain the data needed in the research, the researcher conducted a test (Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2012) using two instruments to measure Japanese listening skills and to measure participants' Japanese vocabulary knowledge. The listening skills test consists of 15 items of multiple choice and short answer test and the vocabulary knowledge test consists of 20 items of multiple-choice test.

The test results were confirmed for the normality through Kolmogorov-Smirnov and the linearity through Anova. The results of the normality test and the linearity test showed that the data are normally distributed and linear. Researcher then conducted correlation test using SPSS with the formula of product moment to determine the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and listening skill of Japanese Language.

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

There are two data in this research, data on vocabulary knowledge and data on learners’ listening skill. As explained above, data from 34 Japanese learners of grade 12 were first tested for normality and linearity using the SPSS application. After it is known that the data is normally distributed and linear, a correlation test was performed using the SPSS application with the Product Moment formula.

What is the level of Japanese vocabulary knowledge of grade 12 language learners?

Based on the results of the vocabulary knowledge test, the mean score of the learners was 77, with the maximum score obtained was 100 and the minimum score obtained was 35. The data on the results of the vocabulary knowledge test can be seen more clearly in the following table.

Table 1 Data on Vocabulary Knowledge Test Results

No. Total score Score Number of Students Percentage

100 2 6%

95 7 21%

90 4 12%

85 3 9%

80 2 6%

75 1 3%

70 4 12%

65 4 12%

60 4 12%

55 1 3%

40 1 3%

35 1 3%

What is the level of Japanese listening skill of grade 12 language learners?

Based on the results of the listening skill test, the average score of the students was 72, with the maximum score obtained was 96 and the minimum score obtained was 35. The data on the results of the listening skills test can be seen more clearly in the following table.

Table 2: Data on Listening Skill Test Result

No. Total score Score Number of Students Percentage

96 1 3%

94 1 3%

92 1 3%

91 1 3%

90 1 3%

89 2 6%

87 1 3%

85 1 3%

83 2 6%

82 1 3%

79 1 3%

77 1 3%

76 1 3%

74 1 3%

73 1 3%

72 1 3%

69 3 9%

67 1 3%

64 2 6%

63 1 3%

62 1 3%

59 1 3%

58 2 6%

57 1 3%

55 1 3%

53 1 3%

50 1 3%

35 1 3%

Is there a relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the Japanese listening skill of grade 12 language learners?

Based on the correlation test using the SPSS application with the Product Moment formula, the data showed that there is a significant relationship between vocabulary knowledge and Japanese listening skill. This is indicated by an r value of 0.525 and sig. 0.001. Then, the contribution value of vocabulary knowledge to Japanese listening skill is 28%. For more details, the results of the correlation test can be seen in the table below.

The result of the correlation test above is in line with those shown by previous studies such as by Stæhr, (2008; 2009), Meccarty in Vandergrift (2004), Wang and Treffers-Daller (2017).

Table 3 Data on test result of Correlation between Knowledge of Vocabulary with Listening Skill in Japanese

Correlations

vocabulary listen

vocabulary Pearson Correlation 1 .525 **

Sig. (1-tailed) .001

N 34 34

listen Pearson Correlation .525 ** 1

Sig. (1-tailed) .001

N 34 34

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).

Meccarty in Vandergrift (2004) found that both grammar and vocabulary knowledge were significantly related to listening comprehension, but vocabulary knowledge was more likely to be related. Research conducted by Staehr shows that there is a strong relationship between the receptive capacities of learners' vocabulary and their reading and writing abilities, and is quite related to their listening ability. In addition, vocabulary capacity can still explain a significant and substantial variant of the learner's listening score (Staehr, 2008). Then, Wang and Treffers-Daller (2017), in their research, showed that vocabulary knowledge is the strongest predictor of listening comprehension, compared to the other two variables, general language skill and metacognitive awareness.

CONCLUSION

Based on the results of the research and discussion above, the things that can be concluded are as follows. The average value of Japanese vocabulary knowledge of grade 12 language learners is 77, with the maximum score obtained is 100 and the minimum score obtained is 35. The average score of Japanese listening skills of grade 12 language learners is 72, with the maximum score obtained is 96 and the minimum value obtained is 35.

Vocabulary knowledge has a significant relationship with the Japanese listening skills of grade 12 high school students. This is indicated by the r value of 0.525 and sig. 0.001. The contribution value of vocabulary knowledge on Japanese language listening skill is 28%. These results indicated that vocabulary knowledge is not only strongly associated with reading skills but also with listening skills. For this reason, teachers also need to put efforts to develop vocabulary knowledge in teaching listening skills. Rost ( 2011) provides several methods that can be used to increase vocabulary knowledge, such as stimulating lexical knowledge by introducing important vocabulary before doing listening activities; providing a video caption on the video to be listened to; simplification of vocabulary in oral texts, including rephrasing or paraphrasing, especially in texts with a rather high level of difficulty; emphasizing the negotiation of the meaning of lexical items that are not yet familiar to learners; and carrying out activities to reconstruct the text in a group after the listening activities.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.35194/cp.v0i0.1321

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